Jazz dictionary

Avantgarde jazz (in French, avant-garde means advanced detachment, vanguard) - is the conventional term for styles and trends of modern jazz, oriented to the renovation of musical language, the assimilation of new, non-traditional expressive means and technical methods (in the field of atonality, modal improvisation and composition, sonority, electronic synthesis etc.). Free jazz, "third trend", electronic jazz, some experimental forms of hard-bop, cool jazz, jazz-rock is commonly related to avantgarde jazz.

Arrangement (the English meaning of "arrange" is dispose, organize, to put into order) - is a musical presentation, intended for a certain number of performers and written in musical notation. Arrangement in jazz is a way of determining the general idea of an ensemble or orchestral interpretation and is the main bearer of style, consequently having no less importance than a composition in academic music.

Archaic (early) blues is the oldest, traditional type of blues which was probably formed in the first half of the last century in the southern USA. It reveals close connections with African sources as well as other traditional genres of American Black folk music (for instance, work-song, holler, ballad and spiritual).
Archaic (early) jazz - an indication of the oldest traditional types of jazz which have existed in a number of the southern states of the USA since the middle of the last century. In particular, Archaic jazz was represented by Negro and Creole march orchestras of the 19th century. The Archaic jazz period preceded the appearance of New-Orleans (classic) style.

Attack is one of the most important dynamic characteristics of sound extraction in jazz, connected with the initial moment of sound capture in playing a musical instrument, or in singing. It can be accented, aggressive or softened. The jazz sound, to a great extent, is determined by the quality of sound attack.

African "hand piano" - is widespread in Africa (on the west coast and in the southern part of the continent) a stringed reed musical instrument, related to the xylophone, with a resonating body length from 10 cm up to one metre. It has one or several rows of prongs of different sizes made of wood or metal, each corresponding to various pitches. There are a number of local names for the African hand piano such as: sanza, mbira, mbila, kalimba, ndimba, ndandi, ijari, mganga, likembe, selimba etc. During the European colonization of America, negro slaves brought the sanza to Cuba, where it exists even now.